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Presqu'ile Provincial Park (ON004)

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Presqu'ile Provincial Park (ON004)

Brighton, Ontario

Latitude 44,009°N
Longitude 77,709°O
Altitude 247 - 250m
Superficie 28,44km²

Description du site

Presqu'ile Provincial Park is located on the north shore of Lake Ontario, approximately 135 km east of Toronto. It is a boot-shaped peninsula that juts 10 km out into Lake Ontario. The outer section of the peninsula is formed from a limestone island, with the isthmus to the mainland being formed from sand. Two offshore islands, Gull and High Bluff are located immediately to the southwest of the peninsula, and an extensive cattail and open water marsh is located in the lee of the peninsula. The park is about 937 ha in area, with 427 ha being water and 510 ha being land. Within this area, diverse habitats are present including large marshes, sand dunes, wide sandy beaches, old fields, a variety of forest types and productive lake areas.

Oiseaux

Presqu'ile Provincial Park is well known for its bird life. During the spring and fall, large numbers of migrants move through the area, and during the late spring and summer a diverse community of breeding birds is present. In all, a total of 318 bird species have been confirmed within the park, with over 130 species being recorded as breeders (among the highest totals for any area in Ontario).

From an Important Bird Area perspective, at least two species are regularly present during spring migration in globally significant numbers (i.e., greater than 1% of their biogeographical population): Greater Scaup and Whimbrel. In addition, the park supports globally significant breeding populations of two additional species: Ring-billed Gull (possibly 7% of the North American population) and Caspian Tern (about 3% of the North American population). Continentally significant numbers of Atlantic Brant and Dunlin are regularly seen. Nesting Double-crested Cormorants are also present in globally significant numbers. Great Egrets began nesting in the park in 1999, and at least three pairs were present in 2000. Nesting King Rails (nationally endangered) and Least Bitterns (nationally vulnerable) have also been recorded in the park, but detailed surveys to establish their regularity (in the case of King Rail) and estimate their numbers (in the case of Least Bittern) have not been completed. Numbers of Least Bitterns, however, are likely close to being nationally significant. Historically, large numbers of Black Terns have also nested in the marsh, but in recent years their numbers have declined.

Presqu'ile is also an important stopover site for migrating landbirds. The species richness is comparable to other landbird concentration sites on the lower Great Lakes. In the past, up to 60,000 swallows regularly roosted in the park in late summer, although more recently numbers have been in the order of 7,000. Large flocks of blackbirds, and occasionally winter finches, have also been reported.

Enjeux de conservation

Although designated as a provincial park since 1922, the management of Presqu'ile is controversial due to the high demands placed on this small, ecologically sensitive area. Beach management needs for shorebirds differ from those of recreational beach users; a controlled waterfowl hunt has occurred in the park; intensive browsing by a large population of white-tailed deer and the spread of non-native species are affecting the native flora and fauna; and human disturbance of resting shorebirds and breeding gulls and terns is sometimes a problem. To address these concerns, park staff, along with local naturalist clubs, are working to ensure that the parks ecological values are protected and enhanced, while accommodating the broad range of annual park users.

Catégories ZICO Habitats Usages Menaces Potencielles ou Existantes Status de Protection
Harle huppé
Nombre Année Saison
2 0002016Automne
2 000 - 15 0002012Automne
5 0002011Automne
5 0002008Automne
2 000 - 2 5002002Automne
2 000 - 10 0001999Automne
Goéland à bec cerclé
Nombre Année Saison
50 0002014Printemps
20 0002013Printemps
50 0001991Printemps
63 608 - 75 2241990Printemps
138 8341990Été
Fuligule milouinan
Nombre Année Saison
8 0002016Printemps
5 0002011Automne
5 000 - 5 5002010Automne
5 3492009Printemps
5 0002008Printemps
5 450 - 13 1502004Printemps
5 857 - 12 8902004Hiver
5 000 - 9 5732003Printemps
10 0002002Hiver
6 0002001Printemps
4 4002001Hiver
5 6502000Printemps
5 000 - 7 6002000Hiver
6 0001999Automne
5 0001999Printemps
5 000 - 10 5001995Printemps
5 2001995Hiver
7 8001994Printemps
11 0001981Hiver
Fuligule à tête rouge
Nombre Année Saison
5 5002017Hiver
8 0002016Printemps
5 5001998Printemps
Mouette de Bonaparte
Nombre Année Saison
3 0002016Printemps
5 0002008Automne
3 0001999Automne
Cormoran à aigrettes
Nombre Année Saison
20 0002015Été
17 0002000Été
8 0301997Été
7 3381996Été
5 2381995Été
6 3181994Été
6 082 - 10 0001993Été
4 8361992Été
3 5921991Été
Fuligule à dos blanc
Nombre Année Saison
6 3002003Printemps
4 0001997Printemps
5 0061993Printemps
Quiscale rouilleux
Nombre Année Saison
25 - 352012Printemps
752011Hiver
302002Automne
501999Automne
24 - 301998Printemps
781996Hiver
301996Printemps
251995Printemps
501993Printemps
501991Hiver
Mouette pygmée
Nombre Année Saison
22016Hiver
22015Automne
22012Printemps
22006Automne
22005Automne
22004Automne
62004Printemps
22003Automne
32002Automne
22001Automne
22000Printemps
2 - 31999Automne
2 - 41999Printemps
2 - 151998Automne
31997Automne
2 - 51996Automne
21995Automne
31991Automne
Sterne caspienne
Nombre Année Saison
2 4442001Été
2 4002000Été
9321997Été
7401994Été
5881993Été
2041990Été
Macreuse à ailes blanches
Nombre Année Saison
4 5002002Automne
8 0001995Hiver
Courlis corlieu
Nombre Année Saison
1 0001985Printemps
Goéland argenté
Nombre Année Saison
4 0002000Hiver
3 0001996Hiver
Râle élégant
Nombre Année Saison
1 - 22017Automne
12017Été
12014Été
12002Été
22002Printemps
11996Printemps
Ictérie polyglotte
Nombre Année Saison
11992Printemps
Paruline orangée
Nombre Année Saison
12017Automne
12014Automne
12011Été
12008Printemps
11999Printemps
Pie-grièche migratrice
Nombre Année Saison
12016Automne
11999Automne
11996Printemps
Oiseaux aquatiques
Nombre Année Saison
20 0001980Printemps
Bernache cravant
Nombre Année Saison
2 5001993Printemps
2 8001987Printemps
1 5001986Printemps
3 0001983Printemps
Martinet ramoneur
Nombre Année Saison
242017Printemps
Harelde kakawi
Nombre Année Saison
7 7431997Hiver